The Traditional Hindu system of architecture is known as Vastu Shastra (vāstu śāstra). The Vastu Shastra
literally means and translates to "science of architecture". There are texts found on the Indian
subcontinent that denotes the principles of design, ground preparation, space arrangement layout,
measurements, and spatial geometry. Vastu Shastra includes traditional Hindu and in some cases Buddhist
principles. The designs and structures are intended to integrate architecture with the relative functions
of various parts of the structure, nature, and ancient beliefs utilizing geometric patterns or Yantras,
symmetry and directional alignments.
Vastu Shastra is the form of textual Vastu Vidya, Vastu Vidya is believed to be the broader knowledge about
architecture and design theories derived from ancient India. Vastu Vidya is a collection of ideas and
knowledge concepts, which may or may not have the support of layout diagrams that are not rigid. Rather,
these concepts and ideas work as models for the organization of space, their usage, and from within a
structure or assembly of buildings, based on their functions in relation to each other, and to the overall
fabric of the Vastu. Early Vastu Shastra philosophies include those for the design of Hindu Temples or Mandir
and the philosophies for the project and layout of households, cities, cities, parks, roads, water works,
shops and other public areas.
There are many Vastu-Sastras in the making of a building or house, temples, towns, and cities. Out of which
one Vastu Sastra is by Thakkura Pheru, which talks about the building of temples. Vastu-Sastra also consists
of manuals including chapters on the home construction, town planning and kingdoms integrated temples, water
bodies and gardens within them to achieve harmony with nature.
The book Silpa Prakasa of Odisha, authored by Ramacandra Bhattaraka Kaulacara written sometime in the tenth
century, is another Vastu Sastra itself. It describes the geometric philosophies in every aspect of the shrine
and representation such as 16 emotions of human beings carved as 16 kinds of female records.
These early Vastu-Sastras, usually discuss and denote the philosophies of Hindu temple design, but do not just
limit itself to the structure and design of a Hindu temple. In fact, they specify the temple as a holistic part
of its community and lay out different philosophies and a variety and diversity of alternative schemes for home,
village, and city layout along with the temple, gardens, water bodies, and nature.